AskDefine | Define uremia

Dictionary Definition

uremia n : accumulation in the blood of nitrogen-bearing waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine [syn: uraemia, azotemia, azotaemia]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Alternative spellings

Etymology

ουρου "urine" + αιμα "blood"'

Noun

  1. Blood poisoning resulting from the retention of waste products usually excreted as urine.

Synonyms

Derived terms

Translations

blood poisoningdue to retention of waste products

Extensive Definition

Uremia is a term used to loosely describe the illness accompanying kidney failure (also called renal failure). In kidney failure, urea and other waste products, which are normally excreted into the urine, are retained in the blood. Early symptoms include anorexia and lethargy, and late symptoms can include decreased mental acuity and coma. It is usually diagnosed in kidney dialysis patients when the glomerular filtration rate, a measure of kidney function, is below 50% of normal.
Azotemia is another word that refers to high levels of urea, but is used primarily when the abnormality can be measured chemically but is not yet so severe as to produce symptoms. Uremia can also result in fibrinous pericarditis. There are many dysfunctions caused by uremia affecting many systems of the body, such as blood (lower levels of erythropoietin), sex (lower levels of testosterone/estrogen) and bones (osteoporosis and metastatic calcifications).

Causes

Besides renal failure, the level of urea in the blood can also be increased by:
  • increased production of urea in the liver, due to:
    • high protein diet
    • increased protein breakdown (surgery, infection, trauma, cancer)
    • gastrointestinal bleeding
    • drugs (e.g. tetracyclines and corticosteroids)
  • decreased elimination of urea, due to:
    • decreased blood flow through kidney (e.g. hypotension, cardiac failure)
    • urinary outflow obstruction
  • dehydration
  • kidney failure
  • chronic infection of the kidney, such as chronic pyelonephritis

References

uremia in Arabic: بولينا
uremia in Danish: Uræmi
uremia in German: Urämie
uremia in Spanish: Uremia
uremia in French: Urémie
uremia in Indonesian: Uremia
uremia in Italian: Uremia
uremia in Japanese: 尿毒症
uremia in Norwegian: Uremi
uremia in Polish: Mocznica
uremia in Russian: Уремия
uremia in Swedish: Uremi
uremia in Chinese: 尿毒症
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